1.1 Divergence of steps of an external ladder from промораживания
The reason: Wrong packing of Promerzanie of external ladders of old buildings can be a consequence of incorrectly executed base. At a base procorf the inclination of steps changes, rain water and snow get between them, occurs промерзание in the winter. The reason can be and wrong installation of steps. In the correct way, at a bias проступей outside, creation of such profiles when seams have above planes проступей is.
Way of repair: in most cases full dismantle, then thorough correction of defects and installation of steps by the qualified experts. Naturally, damaged steps repair, and some of them replace. In the latter case it is necessary to select more proof stone material (a granite, сиенит, габбро, андезит, fresh-water firm limestone, marble).
1.2 Rastreskivanie of steps, infringement of rigidity of seal of a console (trailing) ladder
The reason: Non-uniform усадка a bearing wall; bad seal; poor-quality расклинивание Defects of marches of ladders with косоуром, in many cases their destruction are caused by defects of supporting (bearing) designs. Such designs are necessary for surveying on a place, to define, from what and as they have been made, in what condition are, sometimes it is possible to define, at what fabrication stage there was a defect. In the buildings constructed on a boundary of a century, applied косоуры, made of a tree. These beams, as a rule, upholstered with a cane and plastered. Thus, the design appeared hidden and it was impossible to define its diseases (a fungus, defeats by insects).
Way of repair: In a similar situation replacement of a bearing design is obligatory; repair and installation anew steps.
1.3 Infringements of a continuity of a ladder march, breaks проступей, steps, истертости
The reason: Natural deterioration, mechanical influences Natural deterioration of a running line of old steps becomes in due course the reason of accidents. Characteristic defects: a regional ohm of edges of the steps refined because of истирания, formation of a wavy surface of steps. Defects are aggravated from blows by heavy subjects, for example at a resock of bulky things.
Way of repair: Small damages monolithic or клиновидных steps repair, cutting down deepening in a kind ласточкиного a tail, then обеспыливают, humidify and do an insert of a material of a step or from the artificial stone approaching on colour and structure. Usually at manufacturing of an artificial stone use the crumb of a stone received at долблении of deepening under an insert. If it is not enough of it, add stone rubble. A repair material prepare on 2/3 щебенки various крупности and 1/3 cements. The basic requirement is good consolidation. In most cases for achievement of reliable result the device of thoroughly fixed timbering is necessary. Anew made or repaired surfaces demand damp processing within 7 days. A surface of an artificial stone grind in 1—2 days. Polishing to mirror shine is inexpedient, as the slippery surface can become the reason of accidents. Initial signs истирания проступей, оторые will be shown further in the form of formation of a sinuosity or slippery частков, eliminated by a surface notch. Defects of ladders from a natural and artificial stone can be repaired by means of various modern glues. Thus in the stretched belts apply metal crampons from арматурной steels (fig.). It is possible to cover the used up steps with modern materials. On the smooth surface received after corresponding processing, paste a rubber rug, firm sheet PVC, and also other materials steady to истиранию and suitable to protection of edges.
1.4 Cracks at separate steps, sometimes breaks
The reason: Mechanical influences
Way of repair: At replacement of steps or the whole ladder march trailing ladders it is necessary to fix props, since the wall basis, from a ground floor and on external contour. Works begin with выдалбливания seal places. Steps dismantle from top to down. New marches mount from below, paying attention to correct installation of planes проступей so that water at ladder washing flew down from them freely. Separate steps at replacement enter, at least, on depth in a half-brick with расклиниванием and seal by bricks on cement mortal (fig. 1.2). If in replacement there is no necessity ladder marches can be strengthened косоурами from steel beams (fig. 1.3).
1.5 Rakovinoobraznoe отслоение a ladder material, растрескивание
The reason: fire Influence the Natural stone not racks against fire though it does not burn. Under the influence of high temperature it растрескивается, peels, scattered. Limestones lose substantially the durability under influence concerning low temperature, in them there are chemical processes (roasting to exhaust). Magmatic rocks in this respect behave better. If on the heated stone steps water unexpectedly gets at fire extinguishing it can strongly damage a material of which they are made, and to lead as a result to strong destruction of stone designs.
1.6 Loosened handrail
The reason: Easing of racks of a handrail, breaks owing to corrosion by Characteristic defect of a handrail of ladders is shaking of racks in places of fastenings, растрескивание a stone. Strong corrosion of metal racks, промерзанияу their bases, mechanical influences (compulsory shaking), the water influence, milling effect from motions in seams of particles with keen edges can be the reason.
Way of repair: It is necessary to survey places of seals of racks of a handrail periodically. In an initial stage of development of defect it is possible to use simple pouring of cement mortal with the subsequent затиркой a peschano-cement mix (1:1) that stops the further destruction sometimes for many years. At repair more major defects happen the device of a new nest or replacement of the rusted rack is necessary. It is necessary to pay attention to care of concrete in it твердения as fast drying of a small amount of concrete or an artificial stone leads to its destruction. The good result can achieve only at correct leaving and normal humidifying.
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