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Concrete ladders

External ladders can be made and of ready ferro-concrete marches only in the event that the lay of land allows to establish a flight of stairs with a bias, on which this march is made. In all other cases of a ladder do of ferro-concrete blocks which are made in the form of squared shape steps. Rectangular steps can be executed with the lock. Concrete steps can be stacked on the integral packed ground condensed with rubble. For this purpose by means of a shovel in a ground are cut out подступенки under the size of plates. The basis of the first step condense with granite rubble with the help трамбовки. The block keeps within on a cement mortal layer толщи­ной 2—3 see In case of absence of ready ferro-concrete steps them it is possible to execute from a concrete mix on a place, having made preliminary a timbering of wooden boards (fig. 2). Before concrete packing in a timbering it became necessary устано­вить a skeleton from арматурной or grids. In this case often forward top edge of a step strengthen ме­таллическим a corner, having attached a corner welding to арма­турному to a skeleton by means of metal cores. After that the timbering is filled with concrete which is carefully condensed by means of the vibrator (or трам­бовкой). Surfaces of steps level with the help мас­терка and «железнят» dry cement. Such ladders it is possible to revet by means of natural or artificial stones in the thickness of 3-4 sm or a ceramic tile. It is necessary to remember that for facing of external ladders it is necessary to choose морозо­устойчивые materials. (The modern industry lets out now steps with electroheating, препят­ствующим to formation наледи.) For safe movement on such ladders it is necessary to remember that the materials applied for об­лицовки, should not be slippery. Is better ис­пользовать corrugated or rough tiles (fig. 3). Facing of steps consists of following operations: - Clearing the basis from a solution dirt. - a preliminary apportion of a tile for definition of places of passage of seams. There can be a necessity of cutting of a tile for what risks in a tile with their subsequent splitting are put. The ceramic tile can be cut стеклорезом. - Preparation of a solution which prepares in the same way, as at the device of a ladder from a brick, however the sand parity in this case will be 1:1. - the Solution is put on a surface by a thin layer in the thickness of 3-5 sm with the help шпателя. - the Tile keeps within on a solution in strict conformity with a preliminary apportion and is pressed into it by a lung постукиванием on a tile (is better a rubber hammer). The surface is simultaneously levelled. - surpluses of a solution leave from a surface by means of rags from a sacking or wood sawdust. This operation should be made so that not to shift already laid tiles. - the revetted surface is covered with a canvas which are moistened by water and left for hardening for the term of not less days. - after solution hardening (if there is such necessity) it is possible to fill seams with a liquid solution which is distributed on a surface with the help шпателя. The solution rests watch off or leave by means of rags or a sacking. - after the solution in seams has stiffened, the tile surface is carefully wiped. - on joints with vertical surfaces it is desirable to fill seams with a silicone filler because these seams are most subject to formation of cracks.