At building of the modern house it is almost impossible to do without a construction of an external ladder, especially if the territory adjoining to the house, has the crossed character. And the input in the house (in the presence of a porch) very often assumes presence of a ladder march (let and small) out of door the Choice of a material for building external лестницы can be various enough and depends on many factors, beginning from material and financial possibilities plus degree of imagination of the executor. The most simple external ladders can be executed from boards and their design features practically do not differ from интерьерных, internal wooden ladders on bowstrings and косоурах. At manufacturing of external ladders it is necessary to use the same rules and receptions, as at building of ladders it is admissible on косоурах. A handrail is better to make of a round or square aluminium profile (fig. 3). OtYolichitelnoj feature of such ladders is подверженность wood to rotting and fungoid заболеваниям. In this connection application of sheetings, and in certain cases and the device дополнительной is required to a waterproofing if the ladder adjoins to a ground. Anyway service life external wooden лестниц is limited, therefore them apply seldom. Usually it is ladders at walls, leaders on the second floor or on an attic (fig. 4). If a ladder small, it изготавливают from a brick laid on a solution with расшивкой (fig. 5). Such ladder turns out beautiful and достаточно durable. A handrail for it can be алюминиевые. At its manufacturing it is necessary to choose bricks with equal, without having chopped off (cracks) edges and end faces. As a naYochalnoj stage of manufacturing of a ladder preparation of the basis from бутового a stone with thickness of a layer not less than 10-15 serves It see depends on a ground condition. If the ground bulk, the basis is better забетонировать (armature application is desirable). If the basis бутовое it is carefully rammed before the laying beginning. The solution prepares from sand and cement in следующей proportions: on three parts of sand add one part of cement of mark 400. A mix carefully mix. Затем water with simultaneous перемешиванием mixes is added so that the solution has turned out сметанообразной consistences, and the mix was однородной. The solution is put on the basis by an equal layer толщиной 1—2 sm, and then bricks with a seam in 1 keep within see After the first step will be ready, необходимо to stack and stamp the basis of the second ступени, however, to do it it is necessary so that not to damage the first step (as the solution has not had time to stiffen yet). Is better to fix the first step with помощью a board established lengthways подступенка and two боковых of pegs, pulled together with a rope bowstring. Thus fix also the subsequent steps. Lateral seams are embroidered after there will be очищена from a solution a surface of bricks. To use such ladder it is possible only после solution hardenings (usually 7—14 days).
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