Basic rack перильного the protections, executed in a kind столбчатой figures. It is made by a method точения or millings. Low figured columns (sometimes with a carved decor), a supporting handrail of protections of balconies, ladders etc. Standard section балясин from a tree 45х45 mm, 50х50 mm and 60х60 mm. Height балясин 900 mm.
Protection of a ladder platform or balcony over a ladder. A ladder protection (usually low 900 mm.), a balcony, a terrace, and etc., consisting of a number of figured columns (балясин), connected from above a hand-rail or a horizontal beam, optimum distance between балясинами 120-150 mm.
Больц is the steel fixing element connecting steps among themselves. The ladder on больцах has no skeleton as that. Its role is taken away to steps and больцам. Looking at such ladder, the impression is made that the ladder is groundless.
The hand-rail height - distance on a vertical from the top plane of a step to hand-rail top, standard height makes 900 mm.
Height подступенка - distance on a vertical between the top planes of two next steps.
Step height - distance on a vertical from appear one step to appear the following step (the height can be different, the most optimum from 150 mm to 180 mm).
Dimension — the free space located above on a vertical from the imagined line, connecting acting edges of steps.
Depth of a step of a ladder
Depth of a step of a ladder - a parity of height and width of a step, about equal to the size of foot of the adult person (than less depth of a step and the above a step, the turns out a ladder more abruptly).
Length (заложение) a ladder march
The length (заложение) a ladder march is a distance from a forward edge bottom фризовой steps to a forward edge top фризовой the steps, measured across (in the plan) along an average line of a ladder march.
Zabezhnye steps are steps at which the normal width is observed only in an average line of a march. The internal edge at them already, and external is wider. Are applied at change of a direction of a ladder thereby replacing an intermediate platform.
Косоур is a bearing element of a ladder, an inclined beam on which ladder steps from above keep within. Косоуры happen metal, wooden, ferro-concrete. Thus steps are absolutely not necessarily carried out from this a material. Beams can give the various form, therefore косоуры happen direct, roundish, carved or gear. Kosournye designs differ especial beauty and a variety of design.
The combined ladders
The most difficult and expensive designs sometimes uniting in of some parametres and properties. For example, косоуры such ladder can have metal or even concrete, and steps — wooden. It is possible to combine not only different kinds of building materials, but also ways of fastening of steps. For example, to a platform of the second floor the ladder on косоурах, and above, in a penthouse is arranged, the screw conducts.
The inclined part of a ladder consisting of bearing beams (bowstrings or косоур) and of some steps. In the beginning and the march end there should be platforms, irrespective of, how many marches in a ladder. As a platform the part of the floor adjoining a ladder march can serve.
Ladder protection — a decorative protection which provides safety of movement of people on a ladder march. The distance between vertical racks of a handrail should not exceed 150 mm and if children, 120 mm move.
Ladder screw – an one-mid-flight circular ladder with turn on 270 ° and more.Обычно a spiral staircase put there where the sizes of an aperture are very small for other types of ladders.
Ladder a goose step
Ladder a goose step – a ladder of a compact design with so-called "variable" step. Such ladder is obliged by the name to the special form of steps – with slanting or oval cuts. It establish in the event that there is no place for ladder placing. Ladder steps have the non-standard form – on them is high-grade the foot of one foot.У all ladders a goose step an angle of slope can to go in only is very great.Могут to meet and other names of the given ladder: the Duck step, the Samba, Motylkovaja, the Butterfly, the Devil's ladder.
The ladder closed is a ladder where are applied подступенки.За the account of such sheaf: the step + подступенок – increases service life of a ladder and excludes on a maximum of shaking of all bearing elements of a ladder.
Ladder bent – a ladder with turn on an arch on a corner to 180 ° on all extent of a march. Still such ladders are called DeLux, they look very richly.Цены on such ladders 10 times more from other types of ladders at the expense of application gnuto-kleennyh elements.
Ladder on больцах
Ladder on больцах — a ladder without подступенков. Steps of such design are connected among themselves больцами. The ladder on больцах has no skeleton as that. Its role is taken away to steps and больцам. Looking at such ladder, the impression is made that the ladder is groundless.
Ladder on косоурах
Ladder on косоурах — a ladder which steps are supported from below косоурами from two parties.
Ladder on bowstrings
Ladder on bowstrings — a ladder which steps are supported simultaneously from below and from end faces by a bowstring.
Ladder on central косоуре
Ladder on central косоуре — a ladder which steps are supported from below косоуром on the central axis of a march.
The ladder P-shaped — a ladder which has turn on 180 °.
The ladder G-shaped — a ladder which has turn on 90 °.
Ladder a straight line
Ladder a straight line — a ladder without забежных steps.
Ladder with a platform
Ladder with a platform — a ladder having dividing constructive elements between marches, settling down horizontally in the beginning or in the end of a march (or and in the beginning and in the end), and employees for an input on a march or an exit from it.
Course line - a horizontal projection of a conditional line passing on distance 300-500мм from internal edge of a ladder. Not always coincides with an average line of a march.
Ladder flight — the free space limited to ladder marches and ladder platforms.
Металлокаркас ladders — the bearing design of a ladder made of metal rolling.
Monolithic ladder — the bearing design of a ladder made of monolithic concrete for which in turn create a timbering from boards, metal or асбестоцементных sheets.
Ladder facing — a covering existing металлокаркаса or a monolithic ladder or only a step, or a step and подступенка.
The ladder basis
The ladder basis — a design which keeps a ladder in stationary position. The most widespread types of the bases — косоур, больцы, обсадная a pipe.
It angular, starting, rotary. Is the main element of a protection bearing all loading together with a hand-rail. Therefore demands reliable fastening to the basis and the subsequent tightening with a hand-rail.
The flat lifting connecting two разновысотных of level without use of steps. The ramp is used for entrance of cars, crews, carriages: on the top platform of a porch, on the top terrace, on the top floors of garages etc. On occasion the ramp is arranged instead of a ladder inside or outside of a building.
Подступенок — vertical (or slightly cut) a step element. Serves as an additional support for appear, carries out protective function.
Useful width of a ladder march
Useful width of a ladder march — distance between a wall surface (plastered, revetted) or the central rack (for a spiral staircase) and an internal surface of a hand-rail or distance between internal surfaces of two hand-rail of a ladder. It is measured at height of hand-rail of a ready ladder.
That, on what you lean or adhere at lifting or descent from a ladder. Should adjoin densely a column, to be convenient and to correspond on width located under it балясине.
The boards beaten from the bottom party of a ladder march.
Aperture in interfloor overlapping
Aperture in interfloor overlapping — an aperture in overlapping for ladder installation. Its sizes count recognising that pass height (distance on a vertical from the top surface any appear ladders to the bottom surface of overlapping) should make not less than 2 m.
Interval (backlash) between a ladder and a wall
The interval (backlash) between a ladder and a wall is a distance in light from a ladder march or a platform to a surface of a wall or adjoining constructive elements.
Intermediate ladder platform
Intermediate ladder platform — a platform located between floors.
Проступь — a horizontal element of a step.
The size of a ledge
The size of a ledge - distance across on which the forward edge of one step acts (hangs) over проступью another, located below a step, that is a difference between real and settlement width appear.
Distance between steps in light
The distance between steps in light is a distance between the top surface of one step and the bottom surface appear other, overlying step.
Свес steps - the distance across on which the forward edge of one step acts (hangs) over another, located below a step, or a difference between width of a step and width appear.
Average line of a ladder march
Average line of a ladder march - an imagined line of a way on which usually move on a ladder. She specifies a direction of a ladder march on the scheme: a point designate a forward edge bottom фризовой steps, an arrow — a forward edge top фризовой steps.
Spiral staircase rack
Spiral staircase rack - the central core of a spiral staircase.
Bowstring - a lateral detail of a ladder, an inclined longitudinal beam or a board to which steps fix. (Steps run into lateral sides).
Bias - the height relation подступенка by the width appear, which allows to judge a ladder steepness, for example 17,2/28 (height and width in centimetres).
Garret ladders - the special kind of the ladders which have appeared recently in our country. In the collected condition the garret ladder is cleaned in an aperture of the garret hatch and does not take a place indoors. It is easily resulted in a working condition, it is reliable.
Can be structurally executed from various materials.
Ladder step - height of one step, including its thickness.
Width of a ladder march
The width of a ladder march - depends on constructive possibilities, for example width of a staircase. At insert of a ladder from lateral faces in walls as the terminator surfaces of not plastered walls serve.
Width of a ladder platform
Width of a ladder platform - the distance measured in the plan between a forward edge фризовой of a step and building elements limiting a platform.
Width of a step (appear)
Width of a step (appear) - distance across (along an average line of a ladder march) from a forward edge of one step to a forward edge of the following step. It is settlement size.
Width of a step
Width of a step - width appear plus свес steps. (Physical width of a step)
Floor ladder platform
Floor ladder platform - a platform in the beginning or in the end of a ladder march which is located at level of a floor of any floor.
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